SHAME

Some Video

SHAME

Postby drlynch on Mon Dec 05, 2005 7:20 pm

SHAME
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SHAME- Innage, Pride?

Postby drlynch on Wed Aug 13, 2008 6:40 pm

This NPR interview was forwarded by a friend.

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=93540752


It deals with observing winners and losers at the 2004 Olympics. Interesting findings as, for one, it might point us to saying "pride" is not learned but an innate affect. At the same time unfortunately, not much is said about the facial display in either case albeit I have not read the original article, not having been able to locate it.

I have taken "pride" to be a learned complex "script" dealing with "interest" and "joy" that had to be learned. I have had patients tell me they did not know what pride was. What they are describing in this research does not seem be able to be limited to "interest" or to "joy" albeit it might be joy and not "pride". To be continued....

OK, in all cases all of the athletes would have had had an intense "interest" in their endeavor to get where they where going and so the moment of "joy" is also a moment of "pride" and is interpreted as such?

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Re: SHAME

Postby drlynch on Sat Aug 16, 2008 3:16 pm


Here is the original article that is mentioned above:

The spontaneous expression of pride and shame: Evidence for biologically innate nonverbal displays
Jessica L. Tracy*,† and
David Matsumoto‡
+Author Affiliations

*Department of Psychology, University of British Columbia, 2136 West Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada V6T 1Z4; and
‡Department of Psychology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132
Edited by Frans B. M. de Waal, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, and approved June 16, 2008 (received for review March 18, 2008)

Abstract
The present research examined whether the recognizable nonverbal expressions associated with pride and shame may be biologically innate behavioral responses to success and failure. Specifically, we tested whether sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals across cultures spontaneously display pride and shame behaviors in response to the same success and failure situations—victory and defeat at the Olympic or Paralympic Games. Results showed that sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from >30 nations displayed the behaviors associated with the prototypical pride expression in response to success. Sighted, blind, and congenitally blind individuals from most cultures also displayed behaviors associated with shame in response to failure. However, culture moderated the shame response among sighted athletes: it was less pronounced among individuals from highly individualistic, self-expression-valuing cultures, primarily in North America and West Eurasia. Given that congenitally blind individuals across cultures showed the shame response to failure, findings overall are consistent with the suggestion that the behavioral expressions associated with both shame and pride are likely to be innate, but the shame display may be intentionally inhibited by some sighted individuals in accordance with cultural norms.



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CONFUSION

Postby drlynch on Sun Aug 31, 2008 4:43 pm

Confusion is always the most honest response.
- Marty Indik
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Re: SHAME A QUOTE

Postby drlynch on Wed Oct 01, 2008 9:23 pm

QUOTATION OF THE DAY

"Try finding work when you’re in your 30s or 40s and you’re missing front teeth."
JANE STEPHENSON, who provides job training to low-income women, on the impact of Appalachia’s dental care problems.



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RESEARCH

Postby drlynch on Mon Jan 19, 2009 11:57 pm



More and more I am more and more serious about NOT using traditional nomenclature as I believe that Affect Psychology can supply a non shaming system to replace nearly all the terms and a much more fluid system. So one way to get on with it is to get on with it and simply stop using the terms. But certainly it is an up hill battle. Here, for example, I like many people deplore the use of the word and term "borderline" articles like these go a long way towards our goal of translating our general language into "shame" language.

drlynch

Shame and Implicit Self-Concept in Women With Borderline Personality Disorder
Nicolas Rüsch, M.D., Klaus Lieb, M.D., Ines Göttler, M.D., Christiane Hermann, Ph.D., Elisabeth Schramm, Ph.D., Harald Richter, Ph.D., Gitta A. Jacob, Ph.D., Patrick W. Corrigan, Psy.D., and Martin Bohus, M.D.

OBJECTIVE: Shame is considered to be a central emotion in borderline personality disorder and to be related to self-injurious behavior, chronic suicidality, and anger-hostility. However, its level and impact on people with borderline personality disorder are largely unknown. The authors examined levels of self-reported shame, guilt, anxiety, and implicit shame-related self-concept in women with borderline personality disorder and assessed the association of shame with self-esteem, quality of life, and anger-hostility. METHOD: Sixty women with borderline personality disorder completed self-report measures of shame- and guilt-proneness, state shame, anxiety, depression, self-esteem, quality of life, and clinical symptoms. Comparison groups consisted of 30 women with social phobia and 60 healthy women. Implicit shame-related self-concept (relative to anxiety) was assessed by the Implicit Association Test. RESULTS: Women with borderline personality disorder reported higher levels of shame- and guilt-proneness, state shame, and anxiety than women with social phobia and healthy comparison subjects. The implicit self-concept in women with borderline personality disorder was more shame-prone (relative to anxiety-prone) than in women in the comparison groups. After depression was controlled for, shame-proneness was negatively correlated with self-esteem and quality of life and positively correlated with anger-hostility. CONCLUSIONS: Shame, an emotion that is prominent in women with borderline personality disorder, is associated with the implicit self-concept as well as with poorer quality of life and self-esteem and greater anger-hostility. Psychotherapeutic approaches to borderline personality disorder need to address explicit and implicit aspects of shame.




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Shame should trigger interest in itself

Postby drlynch on Mon Feb 09, 2009 11:20 pm

........................An "impediment to said enjoyment" would then cause a new Shame response. What would follow would be either one of the poles of the Compass Of Shame; Withdraw, Attack Self, Avoidance, or Attack Other and some CO-mingling of other negative affect such as Anger in the Attack Other pole OR the other choice, and that is what I think you are getting close to, and that is Interest? The source of the new interest is the feeling of hurt and shame: What was that thing that got in my way? Why do I feel hurt/shame? If we identify it and deal with it then we can remove it, modify it or control it. The way I have been saying it is that shame should trigger interest in itself. Once dealt with we can return to our original Interest or move on to something new and exciting as we have learned new things from the original impediment and solving the problem

B.Lynch
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SHAME: Shame and psychopathology.

Postby drlynch on Mon Feb 23, 2009 8:00 pm

1: CNS Spectr. 2000 Aug;5(8):28-43.Links
Shame and psychopathology.
Pallanti S, Quercioli L.

Institute of Neurosciences, Florence, Italy.

The origins of the word "shame" recall the concept of the infraction of integrity both as scandal and as individualization. The human experience of shame stretches along a continuum from modesty to disabling interpersonal terror. Unlike other basic affects, its emergence is a fundamental moment in the process of self-awareness and self-object differentiation. Neglected by psychiatry because it was regarded as a moral concept, today it is possible to hypothesize that it has a biologic basis that one can attempt to describe in terms of corticothalamic pathways. In this respect, like other affects, it could be considered as a cognitive shortcut to activate specific and evolutionally useful behavioral patterns, such as concealment or a request for affiliation. It is fairly ubiquitous in psychopathology, but is clinically much more structured in its abnormal expressions in anxiety disorders, particularly social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, eating disorders, body dysmorphic disorder, and even in bipolar mood disorder. In schizophrenia it has been described as being one stage in the construction of delusion. Its presence is connected to interpersonal relationship (altruism) though it seems absent in autism. The assessment of shame experiences in psychiatric patients could be useful for both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic strategies, and could provide a categorization of a new psychopathology based on abnormal affects.

PMID: 18192938 [PubMed - in process]
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SHAME AND THE PSYCHOPATH

Postby drlynch on Mon Feb 23, 2009 8:08 pm

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SHAME : Reprise

Postby drlynch on Wed Mar 25, 2009 6:27 pm



This is a note from a friend that I have been in correspondence with for a while about these matters. It is just an oportunity to review, he engages in conversation thus:


What would you say are the critical dimensions of shame and what
conditions support them. If we can answer this question addressing
it's two parts I believe we will be closer to understanding the
concept of shame and it's real presence in our life.
xxx


Hi,

In the time we have spoken of these issues in toto I suppose the face to face or otherwise give and take on definitions et al has not, in the end, been all that much.

I find "shame", to say the lest, to be slippery simply as it does have so many meanings for people. So to begin with in what context are you speaking and to what definition are you referring? It seems you are asking for a definition?

Of course Silvan Tomkins offers a definition. The shame in AT as a "term of art" = "an impediment to ongoing positive affect (feeling) . I have found in my ongoing analysis that no matter how you slice our historical view of or use of the word shame or of its bastardizations such as guilt and embarrassment or being ashamed his definition is what, at core, we are talking about. We a) wanted something and did not get it or we where enjoying something and had it spoiled or b) the feeling, the bad feeling that comes with "a" along with a lot of "cognitive" garbage about what the bad feeling means to us. Such as we "should" feel bad about what happened, that it was our fault etc.

The trick is to really, really understand how the moment of interruption can be separated form and is separate form cognition in its nascent formation. It is not a cognitive process but shame is a biological process. It certainly quickly becomes a cognitive possess as we are quickly taught what the uncomfortable and bad feeling "means". Now the thing is albeit what we are taught is general is fairly generally, on average, the same we still end up with a myriad of very personal mixtures of conniptions and mixed feelings about shame. Shame quickly becomes contaminated by other feelings such as disgust and dissmell and fear among others. So as adults when interest is impeded shame may be dominate in our feelings but other feelings are right there with it. Right with it are also many thoughts.

Different cultures will have fortified themselves to this unpleasant feeling to various degrees. Some cultures much more than others. Western cultures seem to have "scripted" themselves more heavily against shame than others. That is it is harder for "us" to accept and understand shame than some other cultures. This certainly seems true. At least I find it true that it is hard for our culture. I do not know for what culture it is easier!

But some say we more or less learn form an early age to more or less to "learn not to learn about shame". That is to "bypass shame". If this is true then it is for many people essentially well nigh impossible to learn about it. It is like committing a sin to learn about shame. It must be avoided at all cost. Tom Scheff talks a lot about "bypass shame" and is probably the most articulate writer on Tomkins outside of psychology that I know.

For me the conditions for shame are the conditions of daily life. We are meant to suffer shame as it is absolutely necessary for survival. In its healthy form it ONLY tells us that something is amiss and needs to be taken care of. The quicker we take care of it the quicker we remove the impedimenta and return to the "good scene" of interest and or joy.

What we often talk about and what you may be alluding to is "toxic" shame. This begins to build the moment we let the interruption pass a certain threshold. When we turn away form the problem. Well, the problem does not go way does it? The knock is still at the door. The louder the knock the more shame builds. The more the world tells us to take care of the problem and if we continue to ignore it the more the world will only give us its painful and cold options out of attacking and avoiding and withdrawing, more shame that is now toxic. But this is shame burdened with a lot of disgust and dissmell and anger-rage and terror. We get lost. So much simpler just to deal with "shame" qua "shame" at the moment of the problem.

But you know all this.

Thanks for the conversation.

drlynch


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Face to Face or Couch?

Postby drlynch on Thu May 07, 2009 6:51 pm


Print ISSN: 1546-0371
Volume: 32 | Issue: 3
Cover date: Fall 2004
Page(s): 551-564



Abstract


In this article the therapeutic and scientific advantages of face-to-face psychoanalytic treatment are contrasted with the symbolism, power, and mystery of the psychoanalytic couch. Beginning with recent commentary on the meaning of the couch, I consider some problems associated with its use, such as regressive irretrievability of learning, paucity of affective and empathic connection, preservation of shame, and coercive aspects. Compromises between couch and face are offered, and more clinical and research focus on facial affective expression is encouraged.



Comment: I think it can preserve shame but also be quite liberating. I was just thinking of this topic this week in reference to a movie that is the thought about shame and the couch. On the couch shame, I think, is or can be greatly reduced due to lack of facial contact. You are "free" to let your mind wonder and things pop out. But it depends it is also found that what people are craving is a face to face contact (mutual interest).

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SHAME and Addiction

Postby drlynch on Thu Nov 04, 2010 3:09 am

Warning:

These two videos feature a very articulate addict using the language of shame.

He is not in good shape physically and has facial lesions ( sores) that may be upsetting to some.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpz661CNr4k

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TWfRBbRrj2w&feature=related

Dr. Lynch
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SHAME and EATING DISORDERS

Postby drlynch on Fri Feb 18, 2011 7:12 pm


A very recent study as you may note. Our ideas might be catching on. All people have to do is ask and we are sure they will get this type of answer in terms of many, many syndromes and disabilities.

Dr. Lynch

The relationship between shame, eating disorders and disclosure in treatment

fyI


http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1348/014466503322528919/abstract


Background: This study considered shame in 68 women who had received treatment for eating disorders (EDs) compared to 72 non-clinical controls, and shame in relation to disclosure in treatment.

Method: All participants completed questionnaires on ED and depressive symptoms, and bodily, behavioural and characterological shame and shame around eating. ED women also answered questions on disclosure in treatment.

Results: The ED group scored significantly higher than controls on all shame areas when depression was controlled. ED women who were currently symptomatic and those who had recovered scored higher than controls on bodily and characterological shame and shame around eating. Non-disclosure in treatment was reported by 42% of the ED group and was associated with higher shame in all areas except bodily shame.

Conclusions: The study is the first to show a relationship between shame and ED in a clinical sample. It supports existing evidence regarding the importance of bodily shame in women with EDs, and extends the literature in terms of the importance of other shame aspects for ED symptomatology and disclosure. Implications for treatment are discussed.
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SHAME-ANGER

Postby drlynch on Sat Dec 10, 2011 7:10 pm

Brian Lynch
ATTACH OTHER
SHAME - ANGER SCRIPT

This is intriguing:

Published a three years after the publication of "Shame and Pride."

Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1995; vol. 23(4) pp. 587-93

Experiencing a shame response as a precursor to violence.

Thomas HE

The shame response is a primitive physiological response to a rejection of oneself by another. The discomfort of this response may vary from intense physical pain to one that is barely noticeable, if at all. When this pain is sufficient, it causes anger that may be directed outward against another or inward against oneself. The intensity of the shame response, hence the intensity of the pain and anger, is related to the significance of the other, the significance of witnesses to the rejection, one's vulnerability, whether or not the rejection is of oneself or an aspect of oneself, and if the rejection comes as a surprise. When most intense (i.e., most painful), the shame response may include a tightness of the throat, nausea, stomach pain, and a sense that the contents of one's chest and abdomen are collapsing, exploding, or imploding. In reviewing what preceded an act of violence, it is necessary to determine whether the assailant had experienced a shame response and how intense it was. Understanding that a shame response can lead to anger and violence allows for the prevention of violence. This requires that individuals do not experience rejections that are so painful as to lead to violence.

PMID: 8639986
URL - http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8639 ... t=Citation
Experiencing a shame response as... [Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 1995] - PubMed - NCBI
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Re: SHAME

Postby drlynch on Thu Aug 22, 2013 6:45 pm

The meaning of Shame
Postby drlynch on 26 Feb 2013 05:07 pm

This is an article that helps us get to the anthropology of our cultural resistance to the word "shame." This is something those of us that try and teach this material struggle with all the time. Why is it so difficult? The author does not use our material and still is in the old debate as to whether or not emotions (affects) are learned or innate. You can read the whole article by registering. I would not mind help in pursing the 4,000 articles on shame. http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3 ... 1656350637
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/3651
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